investigation into the sale of substitute species of fish, in place of Grouper, at Florida restaurants. Dr. Price
developed an efficient and reliable DNA analysis method to reduce the cost of fish identification by at least 10-fold
and at the same time identify the species of fish from only a minute sample. After uncovering widespread fish fraud
Dr. Price went on to found FishDNAID in an effort to provide cheap, fast, and highly accurate fish species
identification for the seafood importer, the wholesaler, the restaurateur, and the consumer.

Grouper species identified from fish being sold in Florida as “Grouper”

Florida Species:

1.  Red Grouper (
Epinephelus morio) – most common true Grouper sold as “Grouper”
2.  Black Grouper (
Mycteroperca bonaci)
3.  Yellowfin Grouper  (
Mycteroperca venenosa)

Imported Species:

4.  Malabar Grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus)
5.  Indo-Pacific grouper similar to
Epinephelus epistictus  and Epinephelus diacanthus
6.  Imported Chinese Grouper:  possibly Hong Kong Grouper (Epinephelus akaara), but several other species also
match the sample sequence at the 99% level, including: Snubnose Grouper (
Epinephelus macrospilos), Sixbar
Grouper (
Epinephelus sexifasciatus) and Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus analogus)

Questionable Species:

7.  Pacific Creole Fish (Paranthias colonus) sold as Grouper imported from Ecuador.
This species is not on the FDA fish list, but the Atlantic Creole fish (
Paranthias furcifer) is on the list and has the
market name Sea Bass.  Yet recent scientific evidence places the species
Paranthias colonus within the genus
Cephalopholis, which is a grouper genus and has the market name Grouper.

Species seen multiple times:

1.  Sutchi, Swai, or Tra (Pangasius sutchi, an Asian catfish)
2.  Emperor Fish (best match was
Lethrinus laticaudis)
3.  Emperor Fish, different species from 2, very similar to
Lethrinus lentjan
4.  Painted Sweetlips, (Diagramma pictum)

Species seen only once:

5.  Green weakfish (Cynoscion virescens)
6.  Bream (
Argyrops spinifer)
7.  Hake or Cape Capensis (
Merluccius paradoxus) exact species from cytb gene
8.  Parrotfish (
Scarus frenatus)
9 .  Snapper (exact species uncertain,
Lutjanus jocu, Dog Snapper was best match)
10.  Sweetlips, species uncertain, but different from 4
Know what you buy
Know what you eat